Deep bore hole developments normally require a consistent source of clean water supply since the water is extracted for economic purposes in most cases, and underground water is selected for these purposes through drilling of boreholes. Borehole wells tap into water bearing soil or rock layers called aquifers and can go as deep as 10,000 feet into ground.

Prior to drilling, a ground water potential investigation has to be done to establish the most suitable location for a viable source. The investigation report presents the results of the survey. The report should provide detailed information regarding the water demand, borehole depth and water strikes, yield of the well, bore hole design, test pumping and water quality.

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If the test yield and the water quality meet certain criteria, and if the site itself fulfills certain other conditions, the site can be approved for construction. Intropia drills wells upto 250 metres deep. 

For the construction of deep bore holes, machine powered equipment is required. Even the simplest drilling requires skilled operators and high investments and it's operation depends on the availability of fuel and spare parts. Moreover, the exploration of deep ground water requires expensive geophysical investigations. 

Both surface water and bore hole supplies require capital intensive distribution systems, these include pipelines, break pressure pumps, storage tanks, and domestic water points. The cost of course depends on the location of the river intake or bore hole and the size of the village(s) to be supplied.


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